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International Conventions

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Chicago Convention

The Convention on International Civil Aviation, drafted in 1944 by 54 nations, was established to promote cooperation. Known more commonly today as the "Chicago Convention", this landmark agreement established the core principles permitting international transport by air, and led to the creation of the specialized agency which has overseen it ever since - the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).



Tokyo Convention

In recognition of the fact that customary international law inadequately coped with the jurisdiction problems arising from crimes on board aircraft in flight, the Tokyo convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft, was concluded on 14 September 1963.


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The Hague Hijacking Convention

The Hague Hijacking Convention (formally known as The Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to prohibit and punish aircraft hijacking. The convention does not apply to customs, law enforcement or military aircraft, thus it applies exclusively to civilian aircraft. The convention sets out the principle of aut dedere aut judicare - that a party to the treaty must prosecute an aircraft hijacker if no other state requests his or her extradition for prosecution of the same crime.


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Montreal Convention

Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (sometimes referred to as the Sabotage Convention or The Montreal Convention) was signed in 1971 in consideration of the fact that unlawful acts of seizure or exercise of control of aircraft in flight jeopardize the safety of persons and property and seriously affect the operation of air services and the safety of civil aviation.



Montreal Protocol

Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of Violence at Airports serving International Civil Aviation (Montreal Protocol) is supplementary to the convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montreal Convention 1971). The protocol enhances aviation security by including airports serving international civil aviation in the scope of protection of the Montreal Convention of 1971.


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Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives

The Convention agrees to prohibit the manufacture, storage, transport, or entry of unmarked plastic explosives in its territory. Plastic explosives are not prohibited by the treaty, but it mandates that when they are produced they are marked with a chemical taggant (specified in the treaty's Technical Annex) which can facilitate future identification purposes. The convention was ratified on 1st March 1991.


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